Facts Of The Sun – Sun is very important for us. We get energy from the sun as well as light and heat. Due to it, the earth is a pleasant place to live. If the sun was not there, this earth would have been a very cold and dark place.
Due to the sun that there is a living world. So in this article, we will learn about The Sun such as the formation of the sun, the end of the sun, and layers of the sun. Also, 35 Facts of the Sun and the sun layers. The sun is also a star. So let’s start.
Formation or Birth of The Sun
It is formed by the collapse of part of a massive molecular cloud that is mostly composed of hydrogen and helium, and perhaps it has also formed many other stars. It was built about 4.57 billion years ago. This age has been estimated through the use of computer models of stellar evolution and through nucleocosmochronology.
Studies of ancient meteorites suggest that there were stable nuclei of short-lived isotopes around it, such as iron-60, which form only in detonated and ephemeral stars. This also suggests that some supernova must be found near the place where the Sun is made.
Because the shock wave emanating from a nearby supernova would have compressed the gases inside the molecular cloud and started the process of forming the Sun.
Some areas of the sun would also have formed by collapsing under their own gravity. As soon as a piece of the cloud collapsed, due to the conservation of angular momentum, it would also start rotating and get warmer with increasing pressure.
After this, a very large amount of matter was concentrated in the center, while some flattened outwards turned into a disk, from which planets and other solar systems formed. Gravity and pressure within the core of the cloud caused excessive heat to be produced and more gases from around the disk began to form, eventually activating the nuclear fusion process. Thus, the Sun was born. This theory of Sun’s birth is called a nebular theory.
The sun layers
If we start from inside It has three inner layers and four outer layers. These three Inner layers are the core, convection zone, and radiative zone. And outer layers are the photosphere, chromosphere, transition zone, and corona.
Inner layers of The Sun
I). The Core: The innermost part of the sun layers is the core of the sun. The core of the Sun is only 20 to 25% of the Sun in size. But it is so hot that even beyond imagination. The core temperature of the Sun is as hot as 15 million degrees Celsius.
It is extremely dense and is the main engine of the Sun. Atoms of hydrogen in the center of the Sun form helium by fuse and generate energy through nuclear fusion. The density of the core is 150 grams per centimeter, which is very high.
Actually, it is more than 150 times the density of water. 99% of the energy released from the sun comes from it. The Sun emits energy at a mass-energy conversion rate of 42.6 million metric tons per second. Which is as much as 384.6 watts.
II). Radiative Zone: Above the core is the radiative zone. Out of the sun’s crust, it is 3.5 lakh km thick. This layer is slightly less dense than the core.
Whatever light is produced inside the Sun’s core, it takes 1 lakh 70 thousand years to cross the radioactive zone to reach the next layer.
Although it is less dense than the core, it does not mean that we can imagine its density. And the density of this layer of the sun varies from a centimeter cube at 20 grams to centimeters at 0.2 grams. Talking about the temperature, it heats up to about 7 million degrees Celsius.
III). Convection Zone: Above the radiative zone is the layer of the convection zone. It is not very dense. As much as the core and radiative zone. This layer is less thick than the rest of the sun’s layers. Its thickness is about 2 million kilometers.
Talking about the temperature, its lower surface is heated to about 2 million degrees Celsius. And the top surface i.e. the outer surface of the sun has a temperature of 6000 °C. Due to such a difference between the temperatures, there is a convection process at this layer, which radiates the heat out. The material present in this layer has a density of 0.2 g / meter cubic.
Outer layers of The Sun
I). Photosphere: It is the deepest layer of the Sun that can be seen directly from the earth by naked eyes. The temperature of the photosphere layer varies from about 6500-4000 degrees Kelvin, coming down from above.
II). Chromosphere: This layer of the Sun is approximately 1150 miles thick, between 250 and 1300 miles from the Photosphere. It has a temperature of around 4000 degrees Kelvin on the lower part and 8000 degrees Kelvin on the top.
III). Transition Zone: This layer is very thin with a thickness of about 60 miles, and lies between the corona and the chromosphere. The temperature of this layer rises rapidly from about 8000 to 500,000 degrees Kelvin. Scientists are not yet able to find out why this temperature rises rapidly.
IV). Corona: This layer is the outermost layer of the Sun. But still, we cannot see the corona with naked eyes. It starts from about 1300 miles above the photosphere and nothing can be said about its upper limit. Its temperature is between 500,000 and 1 million degrees, Kelvin.
The End of The Sun
Born about four and a half billion years ago, the sun is converting a large portion of hydrogen to helium every second due to the process of nuclear fusion. It has been estimated that when the entire hydrogen of the sun is exhausted, the temperature of the sun will exceed its limits, which will also gradually increase the size of the sun.
After this, it will also enter a “red giant” stage. The sun is predicted to become a “red giant” after about 5.4 billion years. It is estimated that at that time the size of the Sun will likely be so large that it will swallow the current orbits of the inner planets of the Solar System, including Earth.
There will be only helium left in the sun and now this helium will start to be converted into carbon. Then by gradually dislodging its outer layer, space will disintegrate and there will be as much internal kernel-like part of today’s Earth. But this part will also be very hot. And in this way, our sun will get the form of a “white dwarf” star.
In the end, this white dwarf star will also lose its energy and become like black coal. But this process will take about 5 billion years. And in this way, many stars have died.
Interesting Facts of The Sun
1. Scientists believe that the Sun originated about 4.6 billion years ago.
2. The gravity of the sun is 28 times more than the earth, which means that if your weight is only 7 kg above the earth, then after going over the sun, you will be 7 to 196 kg. The gravitational force of the Sun is so powerful that the planet Pluto, 6 billion kilometers away, is also rotating in its orbit.
3. Ever since the birth of the sun, the sun has revolved around the galaxy only 20 times, it takes 2500 lakh years to complete around.
4. If we assume that the brightness of the sun does not reach the earth one day, then the earth will freeze completely like snow in a few hours.
5. After 5 years from today, the sun will start shining 40% more than today, due to that, the water of all the ocean rivers will become water vapor at that time.
6. The true color of the sun is white because of its atmosphere, it looks yellow.
7. After 5 billion 40 crore years from now, all the hydrogen inside the sun will be gone and from here the sun will start dying.
8. After the entire hydrogen burn of the Sun, its helium will start burning later.
9. When the helium of the Sun starts burning, the size of the Sun will increase and for this reason, Venus, Mercury, and Earth will end.
10. The rays of the sun shining 150 billion kilometers away during the solar eclipse are so intense on the earth that you can feel their heat.
11. Over 800 billion neutrons left by the sun are passing over our bodies at any time of the day and night.
12. There are 20,000 million stars in the galaxy, one of them is the Sun, which is the nearest star to the Earth.
13. Surprisingly, the sun weighs 99.24% of the entire solar system.
14. If the size of the sun is reduced to the size of a football, and the size of Jupiter to the size of a golf ball, then in that case the size of our earth will be less than the size of a pea.
15. The galaxy also has 5% of stars that are larger and brighter than the sun.
planets in order from the sun – Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun.
16. Scientists believe that even if the sun as much as the tip of a pencil comes to the earth, you will be burnt to death from 145 km away.
17. The distance of the sun from the earth is 150 million kilometers, but how fast is the speed of light that it takes only 8 minutes 20 seconds to reach the top of the earth.
18. A total of 108 names of the sun are given in the Sanskrit language.
19. The sun is completely made up of 74 percent hydrogen and 24 percent helium, and the rest of the sun comprises heavy elements such as oxygen, carbon, iron, and neon.
20. The temperature of the outer surface of the Sun is 5500 °C, but the temperature of the inner part of the Sun is 10 million °C. इज़राइल के रक्षा प्रणाली और इज़राइल का इतिहास
21. The state of a solar eclipse is formed when the moon comes between the sun and the earth and this condition can remain for at least 20 minutes.
22. The mass of the sun is about 1.989 x 10 ^ 30 kg.
23. Every second the sun produces 10 million tons of hydrogen, 69.5 million tons of helium, and the remaining 5 million tons turn into gamma rays.
24. The pressure of the inner part of the sun is 340 times the pressure of the earth’s atmosphere.
25. Light takes 5 hours 30 minutes to reach Pluto from the sun.
26. The diameter of the sun is 1,392,684 km i.e. 109 times larger than the Earth.
27. A nuclear fusion reaction takes place inside the sun, it is exactly like the reaction that occurs when a hydrogen bomb explodes.
28. If all the energy of one hour of the sun is converted into electricity with the help of solar plates, then it can fulfill one year’s power consumption of the world.
29. The sun is so big that if it is hollowed out and the earth is inserted into it, then 103 million earth are included in it.
30. The topmost surface of the Sun is called the photosphere, the middle surface is the chromosphere, and the innermost surface is called the corona.
31. The largest solar storm hit the Sun in 2003. To avoid this storm, astronomers came into a safe space. All means of contact on the earth were disrupted due to the 2003 sun storm, but the sun storm did not cause any harm to the earth.
32. In 1973 Skylab became the first manned space station. It sent a photo of the sun to the earth.
33. 5500 degrees Celsius is the upper surface temperature of the Sun. The center of the Sun is around 15 million degrees Celsius hot.
34. It is a natural hospital. The sun’s rays of the sun have amazing curative power. From morning to evening, the sun destroys many disease-producing germs with its rays, which have immense reserves of medicinal properties. According to the belief of Chinese people, the doctor does go to the house where the sunlight does not go.
35. The Arctic Circle is also known as the Midnight sun Country Because does not sunset here for about 76 days in the month’s May to July.
- After Great Britain the largest island of Europe is Iceland. Here also you can enjoy the sunlight even at night. Here it does not sink from May 10 to the end of July.
- Canada is the second-largest country that is covered with snow. But in the northern-western part of the place, the sun shines continuously for 50 days during summer.
- It does not sink in Alaska from May to July. In the months of May to July, it is very enjoyable to see snow shining at night.
36. Even in Finland, the sun keeps on shining its light for about 73 days.
Some FAQs are Given Below
1. What is the sun?
it is just like the stars that you see in the sky at night.
2. What is the sun made of?
71% part of it is made of hydrogen and 28% with helium. And 0.5% is made of neon, iron, silicon, magnesium, and sulfur made & the remaining 1.5% part of this is made up of Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.
3. How old is the sun?
The Sun is 4.5 billion years old.
4. How does the sun work?
It works on the principle of nuclear fusion which occurs in the core of the Sun.
5. Is the sun yellow or white?
The true color of it is white because of its atmosphere, it looks yellow.
6. How hot is the sun?
5500 degrees Celsius is the upper surface temperature of the Sun. In the center is around 15 million degrees Celsius hot. the temperature of the Sun is as hot as 15 million degrees Celsius. The outer surface of the sun has a temperature of 6000 °C